Peat is wet, anoxic and spongy ground, consisting of decayed plant material. Dead plant material is rapidly degraded by the presence of oxygen and the action of bacteria and fungi, especially when it's hot, and not too wet or dry. In the absence of oxygen, anaerobic degradation occurs, wherein CH4 is created. In wet and humid conditions, the degradation is slower than the accumulations by which peat formation occurs.
turfFens arose under the influence of groundwater.
Raised bogs arose under the influence of rain water. The main ingredient is sphagnum moss.
In waterlogged soils and peat bogs or peat moor was peat stung.

The peat blocks have been spread out in order to de-watering, and then lightly stacked to further drying. Turf is dried peat which was used as fuel. Turf of peat bog out was generally of better quality than from peat fens.

(Also dried dung is used as fuel.)

The transformation by increasing exposure to pressure and temperature of peat makes first lignite or brown coal, then coal, anthracite and then finally graphite. By further compression of graphite would diamond occur. The arrangement of carbon atoms is more optimal as the pressure and temperature increase. Diamond is characterized by a perfect stacking. Dry brown coal contains up to 75% carbon, dry turf contains up to 60% of and anthracite 95% carbon.

"Some ears hear better when one adheres diamond earrings.”(Georges Court Line)

' Diamond: a lump of coal with migraine.“ (LP Whitney)

Brown coal is a form of lignite that is pure enough to economically justify exploitation.
There is still enough coal for the next 250 years. Lignite is found at depths of 100 to 500 m below the surface and won for 90% in surface mining. This is easier than the extraction of deeper coal with shaft construction.