You can facilitate transport and movements,

over water with a canoe and boat, or a raft (See Fishing, Build a boat),

on snow and ice with a sled, skis or skates (see Textile, under Shoe and grease).

The wheel revolutionized moving on the land. We use a wheelbarrow, hand truck and cart, (see tools and mechanics), beasts of burden and carts (See Horse), donkey, dog cart...

Previously we had to carry loads. That becomes more convenient if you use a basket, a bowl, a calabash or a bag. With handles it becomes a more convenient bucket or a backpack. (A double bag (back and abdominal pocket) is more balanced and better.) When walking, your body always looks for the common center of gravity between body and load. It is therefore best to balance the load as close to your own center of gravity as possible.

In the low countries we improved ease and capacity with a yoke: a modeled wooden shoulder block with a bucket or basket at each end. This gives you a better, symmetrical load with the center of gravity above your feet, as with a balance. Yokes were often made from hornbeam wood which is strong, hard and tough and does not break easily.

The Chinese use a longer yoke, usually a bamboo stick that is worn on one shoulder.

You need to adjust your gait to minimize the pendulum swing or sync the cadence with your steps.

Carrying on the head is lighter than a back load

In Kenya, Luo women carry loads of 20 (to 66)% of their own body weight on top of their heads. (Barack Obama's father (44th President of the United States) was a Luo.)

Women of the Kikuyo tribe do this with a leather strap around their forehead and the load to secure it. This gives them a permanent groove in the forehead, but that would be without harmful health effects. (Belgian researcher Norman Heglund.)

A bucket of water is carried on the head without spillage. The "secret" would be to move the back so smoothly that the main load will not dance up and down. This also saves step energy. The double support phase with the two feet on the ground takes longer to store energy and release it again at the outlet. Their weight is moved extremely efficiently from one foot to the other. As a result, they retain eighty percent of the energy from the previous step.

The relatively small and delicate Sherpas carry up to 146% of their own body weight in the Himalayas uphill, they would have developed a similar energy-saving step technique.

The wide range of back courses shows that we Westerners can still learn a lot in that area.

The bicycle

The first balance bike (without steering handles) was already made in 1790. The velocipèdes were gradually improved (saddle, handlebars) and got pedals on the front wheel in 1865. The first bicycle with a chain drive was built in 1868. And in 1888 John Dunlop applied for a patent on air-filled bicycle tires and a valve. With this combination of many mechanics (ball bearings, sprocket) we got one of the most efficient transport options and a fast manpowered means of transport.

Depending on your condition, and that of the road and your bike, you can easily cover a distance 2 to 4 times faster than on foot.

Based on bicycle (wheels), constructions have also been made with 4 wheels where you can lie between to weed rows of plants, and even a bicycle tractor. I doubt that the latter can be efficient.

Bicycles were and still are made in wood, bamboo, cardboard (and metal and plastic). There were and are even steam bikes!

There are cargo bikes and bicycle trailers for transports. On rougher terrain it is easier to drive with larger wheels (as with the logging wheels ( see Lever under Tools, where you will also find the wheel hoe).)