mortelmakenA mortar or grout is a fine mixture to bricklaying: (to connect stones or bricks together), or tiling, plastering, joints and so on. 

In the past a mortar was made from rye flour with sand, water and shell lime. 
Afterwards mortars consisted mainly of sand with lime:
1 part of binder, 3 parts of granulate and 1 part water.

- Lime mortar (lime and sand) used for restorations (e.g. 1:8)
- Cement mortar (cement and sand, 1:4.5 to 5)
- Cement-lime mortar (lime, cement and sand). Possible ratio in weight: 1:2:16, or even 0,5:1:4,5 volume. Shrinks less and is more elastic than cement mortar, and cures much slower.

Stabilized sand
Stabilized sand is a slightly moist mixture of sharp sand and cement in a ratio of 1/8 to 1/10, as a base for paving. The thickness depends on the substrate and the load (10 to 50 cm).

A lintel is a load bearing span in wood, stone, concrete or steel to put above wall openings to deduce loads on the wall.

With an arch or vault also spans can be constructed.

Foundation for buildings are made ​​on stable substrate.
Concrete edges are dug down to freezing depth (minimum 80 cm) on the outside against refreezing (pressing stones up, out of the ground).