VuursteenDisselsMining engineering is concerned with the systematic extraction of minerals and quarrying from the soil, even in liquid (oil) or gaseous form.
In the Netherlands there was mining in 3,100 BC. In South Limburg Rijckholt a large (to visit) flint mine from which thousands of carved stones were widely disseminated in Europe was found. Belgium has had since Roman times coalmining in the Borinage. In the Middle Ages, the underground limestone mining flourished in (marl) slots including the mount St. Pieter near Maastricht.

In an open pit mine or open-cast mine can be mined at the surface.
Problems in mining may be: pumping water out, air in, struts.
I.a. for the extraction of coal, limestone, slate (Fr. ‘ardoise’) salt and iron ore mining is important.

The prehistoric copper mine in Rudna Glava (140 km east of Belgrade) is 7,000 years old, and has shafts of 20 meter deep.