Comes from the Latin word meaning alumen that means alum. It melts at 660.4⁰C.
Compounds of aluminum were already known in antiquity, like alum, which was used to staunch bleeding. (when cut at shaving)
AluminiumIt was only in 1886 by the Hall -Heroult - process, that the electrochemical production on a large scale became possible.
Aluminum is very light, and is used as a foil, in transport (aircraft to bike), pans, profiles, structures, windows, cans...
To air it forms a dull, thin, stable and closed oxide skin.
In the presence of mercury salts it oxidizes very quickly and sets it fire.

Bauxite, the ore form of aluminum consists of Al2O3 (alumina) and remainder. It is brought into contact with 140°C to 240°C warm sodium hydroxide solution. They are hydrated sodium alominate (NaAl (OH) 4). The other components in solution may be removed by allowing them to settle and be filtered off.
The solution hydrated sodium alominate is then cooled, so that the aluminum hydroxide (Al (OH)3) crystallizes and sodium hydroxide remains. By heating the aluminum hydroxide (calcining) the chemically bound water is removed and formes aluminum oxide (Al2O3) (the Bayer process).

The alumina powder is then placed in a special oven, with an electrolyte (cryolite, molten ceramic substance). At a temperature of almost 1,000 degrees Celsius, a direct current passes through the liquid. The dissolved alumina in the electrolyte is split into liquid aluminum and oxygen by electrolysis. The aluminum sinks to the bottom where it is absorbed. In the foundry it is cleaned, possibly mixed to alloys. Then cast as rolling slabs and rods from which the products of aluminum are made.

The released oxygen is bound to carbon which is hung in a large block (anode) at the top of the oven. This consumes half a ton of carbon per ton of aluminum. 4 tonnes of bauxite becomes two tonnes of alumina, from which one ton of aluminum is extracted.
Also ordinary clay contains aluminum, but the extraction is difficult and uneconomical.
Bauxite is mined in Australia and Suriname, among others.