Drawing is an art form in which an idea or image is made in two dimensions. By use of perspective (vanishing point (s), dimensions, distortion, overlapping...) three dimensions can be suggested. Drawing is an important and useful skill to transfer information.

At the Santa Elina Rock Shelter (Brazil), people were already active 23,120 years ago with rock paintings and bone ornaments.

In a remote cave in Borneo, Indonesia (November 2018 in Nature), archaeologists have discovered the possibly oldest figurative mural ever. She represents a cow. The uranium and thorium elements in the rock beneath the work date it between 40,000 and 52,000 years.


A 44,000-year-old and 4.5-meter-wide hunting scene in a limestone cave on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi (Maros-Pangkep area) may be the oldest man-made cave painting made by people. Two pigs and four dwarf buffalo are attacked with spears or ropes by eight hunters with external characteristics of animals.

The drawings of animals and hands in Chauvet, Lascaux (Fr) and Altamira (Sp) are dated around 33,500 to 37,000 years ago.

cartographyhong-kongIn cartography maps are drawn from a (small to global) environment. Accurate maps make it possible to use an appropriate or short route or time in order to be able to find a desired place.

A good map contains as much information as possible in order to use her well: title, scale indication, orientation (mostly north-up), the symbols with the meaning of symbols and colors, data about source or creator, date, etc.
Also clear recognition points are very important.
By screening a map and use XY coordinates each point can be indicated by two numbers.

Ratio or scale 1/50 means that what you measure in the plan (e.g. 7 cm) is actually 50 times larger, it will be 7 x 50 = 350 cm or 3.50 meters.

For technical drawing we use compass, ruler, protractor, drawing triangles to make (to scale) an exact representation.
This may relate to plans for a house, a piece of furniture or other structures as a tool or device. Also, networks or diagrams of pipes (water, electricity, heating) can be displayed.

When you start a project, you can create a sketch (rough drawing freehand) for the pre- think of to project what you want to do, to prepare, visualize, to gain insight, calculate, foresee problems and solutions, required material.

Also in processes and actions can be followed the way from problem to (between) solution, outlined in a flow chart as it is also used for software development.

For many types of technical drawings, symbols are also used to refer to frequently recurring parts. A symbol is a sign with a given significance. You find them in mathematics, as a flag or logo in computer science...

In texts characters are used. Punctuation improves the readability of a text, and sometimes provides guidance on the meaning and pronunciation of the sentence..?, - ')
Ampersand (&), at sign / at (@), asterisk (*) and backslash (\) are no punctuation.
Emoticons were introduced in 1982 by Scott Fahlman:-) to distinguish between fun and seriousness:-(in texts. If you rotated them 90° distinction you see a smiley.

Love is blind, lingerie is braille.

The importance of punctuation:

Good: Letting your boss see you hard at work.
Bad: Letting your boss see you hard, at work.

A woman without her man is nothing.
A woman: without her, man is nothing.

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