Genetic engineering (negative context) or modification (neutral or positive context), (GM) is the targeted changing of the genes of an organism in a laboratory.
genemanipulationThe result is called GMO (genetically modified organism), or transgenic organism. There are already a variety of organisms on the market, such as citric acid, antibiotics, insulin, interleukins, EPO, FSH, TPA, growth hormone, cytokines, interferon, monoclonal antibodies, coagulation factors, and vaccines.
Plants are adapted to grow (quickly) under worse conditions (dry, salty..) or with resistance to diseases or certain pesticides, or enriched with additional nutrients.
Corn, cotton, sugar beet and oilseed rape have been made ​​resistant to certain herbicides. So everything can be sprayed dead except the culture plants.
The AquAdvantage salmon received a gene from an eel and a growth hormone of a specific salmon, making this GM Atlantic salmon grows twice as fast.

Ever since we were tilling the land centuries ago we domesticate and select our sample, who seemed to have the most advantageous properties: higher milk production, more traction, meat or eggs, rapid growth, beautiful color, more seeds, better storage, etc.
We are now able to do better than nature, this is much faster and with precisely the properties we choose, even if they come from a different, unrelated species.
Theoretically, this is very minor surgery. In order to make potato resistant to infection a two, three or four genes are added at about 40,000. The modified potato remains so for more than 99.9% of the old one.

There can be listed many potential advantages and disadvantages.
On the one hand, we could make beautiful super drugs, and float hunger out of the world. But we have not noticed this yet.

On the other hand emerge super- threatening (resistant) weeds, and insects.
GMO crops are covered by patent law (ordinary plants under breeder and commercial law), by which seed companies conquer monopolies and get a lot more power compared to the farmers. This raises questions concerning choice, cost and pricing, ownership...

Because of the enormous capital that is involved, the GMO will be imposed to us, like it or not, nevertheless.
The preservation of sufficient diversity is in any case very important and more than necessary.

Yeast cells under stress mingle their chromosomes (in panic?) very quickly with another. This accelerated evolution increases the likelihood that a copy survives the stressful situation. For this redistribution of chromosomes heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is responsible.

For horizontal or lateral gene transfer genetic material is exchanged between two organisms with no family relationship.
Cell transformation is common in bacteria but rare in eukaryotes (single-celled organisms with DNA in the nucleus membrane. In prokaryotes, the DNA is loose in the cytoplasm).
The transmission of genes is possible trough a bacterial virus (bacteriophage).
It is thought to play a significant role in the resistance of bacteria to antibiotics. A resistant cell can pass traits on to other cells quickly.

 'Horizontal gene transfer' by for example Agrobacterium is a risk at genetically modified food. Dr.Mae - Wan Ho, director of the Institute of Science in Society, is deeply concerned about the possible spread of transgenic DNA to other species, including humans.
"It is the most serious threat to the transgenic technology. There is now considerable evidence that transgenic DNA in modified food and other products by viruses, bacteria, and plants and animal cells can be adepted and can spread that way to other species.“
The Agrobacterium tumefaciens is possibly the cause of the disease Morgellon.

I find it disturbing, and the risks cannot be estimated.
Especially the effects on humans and the environment in the long term, that is gambling...
It seems to me something like giving medicine to a patient. All fine, and working, and well designed. But all together may be very harmful or even deadly. No one can overlook the combinations and effects.
We do not know what effects such modified diet will have over a longer period in our own bodies and seed, or how much GMO natural organisms will threaten or supplant.
We run the risk by a lack of understanding to disrupt nature and life.
Crosses fingers, remain wisely and cautious.
Hope it will not went (too) wrong...