Cider is fermented apple juice, cut off from air before the end of the fermentation so that carbonic acid remains in the drink. Pear cider also exists.

amforaBecause an amphora (pottery jug) was porous, the inner previously was sealed with resin. Because the resin enhanced durability Greek winemakers remained adding it to their wines. The typical retsina taste so remained preserved until today.

The alcohol content of wine is 9-12 degrees.
Fortified wines have an alcohol content between 15 and about 22%.

Mead: replace fruit by in (24 l) water dissolved honey (10 kg).

The Romans never drank their wine pure, which was seen as barbaric. He was, as still often when dining in the south, diluted with water.
Also, the wine was sweetened with honey. This delicacy was called mulsum.

The historic city of Tel Kabri (Canaanite region in Israel), was about 3,600 years ago destroyed by a disaster. In the ruins a 3,700 year old collection of (pieces of) about forty ceramic jars were found, that makes this the oldest known winery, it was good for about 3,000 bottles of both red and white wine.


A champagne cork is not made in mushroom shape. It is a thick cork which is strongly compressed and then is pressed for 2/3 in the strong bottle neck. Only the protruding part expands again, and is secured with an iron muselet.

If you let the cork shoot out the wine will spray by the reaction from the bottle. What remains is quickly losing carbonation. You so better gently pry up and stop the cork.

In Champagne wine cellars of kilometers long are carved into the limestone soil.